Cervical Cancer | Western Cape Government

Cervical Cancer

elderly lady on the side of the roadWhat is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is the cancer that causes the largest number of deaths among women in many developing countries, and is the second most common cancer among South African women.  

A woman’s cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a foetus can grow). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal) below.

Cervical cancer is a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to form tumours. The symptoms vary from woman to woman. Some women will experience no symptoms, while others may have severe symptoms.
According to the Cancer Association of South Africa, 1 in every 42 women in the country will be diagnosed with cervical cancer.

What causes cervical cancer?

In most cases, cervical cancer is caused by a virus called Human Papillomavirus or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not cause any symptoms. 


To prevent cervical cancer women should consciously make healthy lifestyle choices and create an environment that may assist others in choosing a healthy lifestyle. Some preventative measures would be to stop or preferably never start smoking, and to prevent or manage sexually transmitted diseases.

nurse-providing-careHow is cervical cancer detected?

The earlier abnormalities in the cervix cells are detected the better the chances will be of treating the cancer successfully. 
To detect cervical cancer a pap smear screening is done, to check for changes in the cells of a woman’s cervix. The test is able to identify any abnormalities or infections that may be found in the cells. The advantages of going for regular pap smear check-ups is that the earlier the disease is detected, the quicker the treatment may be implemented. All women 30 years and older should be tested for cervical cancer during her life time.

Pap Smears

What is a pap smear and why should women have one done?

A Pap smear/cervical smear is a procedure whereby a trained professional nurse or doctor takes a sample of cervical mucosa and sends it off for testing to determine whether cancer cells are present.

What do the medical staff look out for when they do a pap smear?

Medical staff perform a full external and internal examination to look out for any visible signs of sexually transmitted infections or any other pathology that will require attention.

What are the common results/prevalent results of pap smears in the Western Cape?

Most results are normal, where no abnormalities which may cause concern are detected.

What should women do or not do to avoid negative results of a pap smear

  1. Young women should delay having sex.
  2. Have regular pap smears to ensure early detection.
  3. Seek medical help if there are signs and symptoms of infection e.g. substantial and/or pungent vaginal discharges, lower abdominal pain, abnormal bleeding etc.
  4.  Always use condoms.
  5. General healthy lifestyle. 

What are the benefits of going for a pap smear and when must they go for one? 

The benefits are that there will be early detection of cancer cells and or infections and treatment can be commenced earlier. In government facilities all women 30 years and older can have 3 free pap smears at 10 year intervals.

What services are available to the public? (So where can they go and how do they access it?)

Pap smear services are available at all health care facilities Monday to Friday. Some facilities offer extended hour sessions to accommodate working women.

Regular Check Ups) and any other information you may deem relevant that will give the public a complete picture.

A clinical breast examination is done with every pap smear to detect signs and symptoms of breast cancer.

hpv vaccinationWhy is the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Necessary?

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the virus that causes cervical cancer. The vaccination protects girls from being infected by HPV and thus reduces the risk of developing HPV related cervical cancer later in life. Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women after breast cancer. Close to 80% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV.

Statistics on HPV

  • The incidence rate of cervical cancer in South Africa is reported between 22.8 and 27 per 100 000 women as compared to the global average of 15.8.
  • Annually there are some 5 743 new cases reported with 3 027 associated deaths in South Africa.
  • 99% of cervical cancers are associated with HPV.
  • About 7 in every 10 people will have HPV at some point in their lifetime.
  • Two strains of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) are found to cause over 70% of the cervical cancer cases.
  • Cervarix®, that was provided, protects against HPV-16 and HPV-18 strains.
  • The World Health Organization has recommended vaccinating girls before they are sexually active (between 9 to 13 years).

Read the frequently asked questions about the Human Papillomavirus(HPV) Vaccination

The content on this page was last updated on 24 February 2017